Oleh I Putu Suwitra, S.Pd

Jumat, 24 September 2010

Zaman Batu

The Stone Age
Prehistoric cultural stage, or level of human development, characterized by the creation and use of stone tools.
Robert A. Guisepi
Date:2000
Archaeology is concerned with the origins and development of early human culture between the first appearance of man as a tool-using mammal, which is believed to have occurred about 600,000 or 700,000 years ago, and the beginning of the Recent geologic era, about 8000 BC.
The Stone Age is usually divided into three separate periods--Paleolithic Period, Mesolithic Period, and Neolithic Period--based on the degree of sophistication in the fashioning and use of tools.
Paleolithic
Archaeology is concerned with the origins and development of early human culture between the first appearance of man as a tool-using mammal, which is believed to have occurred about 600,000 or 700,000 years ago, and the beginning of the Recent geologic era, about 8000 BC. It is included in the time span of the Pleistocene, or Glacial, Epoch--an interval of about 1,000,000 years. Although it cannot be proved, modern evidence suggests that the earliest protohuman forms had diverged from the ancestral primate stock by the beginning of the Pleistocene. In any case, the oldest recognizable tools are found in horizons of Lower Pleistocene Age. During the Pleistocene a series of momentous climatic events occurred. The northern latitudes and mountainous areas were subjected on four successive occasions to the advances and retreats of ice sheets (known as Günz, Mindel, Riss, and Würm in the Alps), river valleys and terraces were formed, the present coastlines were established, and great changes were induced in the fauna and flora of the globe. In large measure, the development of culture during Paleolithic times seems to have been profoundly influenced by the environmental factors that characterize the successive stages of the Pleistocene Epoch.
Throughout the Paleolithic, man was a food gatherer, depending for his subsistence on hunting wild animals and birds, fishing, and collecting wild fruits, nuts, and berries. The artifactual record of this exceedingly long interval is very incomplete; it can be studied from such imperishable objects of now-extinct cultures as were made of flint, stone, bone, and antler. These alone have withstood the ravages of time, and, together with the remains of contemporary animals hunted by our prehistoric forerunners, they are all that scholars have to guide them in attempting to reconstruct human activity throughout this vast interval--approximately 98 percent of the time span since the appearance of the first true hominid stock. In general, these materials develop gradually from single, all-purpose tools to an assemblage of varied and highly specialized types of artifacts, each designed to serve in connection with a specific function. Indeed, it is a process of increasingly more complex technologies, each founded on a specific tradition, which characterizes the cultural development of Paleolithic times. In other words, the trend was from simple to complex, from a stage of non-specialization to stages of relatively high degrees of specialization, just as has been the case during historic times.
In the manufacture of stone implements, four fundamental traditions were developed by the Paleolithic ancestors: (1) pebble-tool traditions; (2) bifacial-tool, or hand-ax, traditions; (3) flake-tool traditions; and (4) blade-tool traditions. Only rarely are any of these found in "pure" form, and this fact has led to mistaken notions in many instances concerning the significance of various assemblages. Indeed, though a certain tradition might be superseded in a given region by a more advanced method of producing tools, the older technique persisted as long as it was needed for a given purpose. In general, however, there is an overall trend in the order as given above, starting with simple pebble tools that have a single edge sharpened for cutting or chopping. But no true pebble-tool horizons had yet, by the late 20th century, been recognized in Europe. In southern and eastern Asia, on the other hand, pebble tools of primitive type continued in use throughout Paleolithic times.
French place-names have long been used to designate the various Paleolithic subdivisions, since many of the earliest discoveries were made in France. This terminology has been widely applied in other countries, notwithstanding the very great regional differences that do in fact exist. But the French sequence still serves as the foundation of Paleolithic studies in other parts of the Old World. (H.L.Ms./Ed.) There is reasonable agreement that the Paleolithic ended with the beginning of the recent (Holocene) geologic and climatic era about 8000 BC. It is also increasingly clear that a developmental bifurcation in man's culture history took place at about this time. In most of the world, especially in the temperate and tropical woodland environments or along the southern fringes of Arctic tundra, the older Upper Paleolithic traditions of life were simply readapted toward more or less increasingly intensified levels of food collection. These cultural re-adaptations of older food procedures to the variety and succession of post-Pleistocene environments are generally referred to as occurring in the Mesolithic Period. But also by 8000 BC (if not even somewhat earlier) in certain semi-arid environments of the world's middle latitudes, traces of a quite different course of development began to appear. These traces indicate a movement toward incipient agriculture and (in one or two instances) animal domestication. In the case of southwestern Asia, this movement had already culminated in a level of effective village-farming communities by 7000 BC. In Meso-America, a comparable development--somewhat different in its details and without animal domestication--was taking place almost as early. It may thus be maintained that in the environmentally favorable portions of southwestern Asia, Meso-America, the coastal slopes below the Andes, and perhaps in southeastern Asia (for which little evidence is available), little if any trace of the Mesolithic stage need be anticipated. The general level of culture probably shifted directly from that of the Upper Paleolithic to that of incipient cultivation and domestication.
The picture presented by the culture history of the earlier portion of the Recent period is thus one of two generalized developmental patterns: (1) the cultural re-adaptations to post-Pleistocene environments on a more or less intensified level of food collection; and (2) the appearance and development of an effective level of food production. It is generally agreed that this latter appearance and development was achieved quite independently in various localities in both the Old and New Worlds. As the procedures and the plant or animal domesticates of this new food-producing level gained effectiveness and flexibility to adapt to new environments, the new level expanded at the expense of the older, more conservative one. Finally, it is only within the matrix of a level of food production that any of the world's civilizations have been achieved.

Old Stone Age, the earliest period of human development and the longest phase of mankind’s history. It is approximately coextensive with the Pleistocene geologic epoch, beginning about 2 million years ago and ending in various places between 40,000 and 10,000 years ago, when it was succeeded by the Mesolithic period. By far the most outstanding feature of the Paleolithic period was the evolution of the human species from an apelike creature, or near human, to true Homo sapiens. This development was exceedingly slow and continued through the three successive divisions of the period, the Lower, Middle, and Upper Paleolithic. The most abundant remains of Paleolithic cultures are a variety of stone tools whose distinct characteristics provide the basis for a system of classification containing several tool making traditions or industries. 1

The Lower Paleolithic Period
The oldest recognizable tools made by members of the family of man are simple stone choppers, such as those discovered at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania. These tools may have been made over 1 million years ago by Australopithecus, ancestor of modern man. Fractured stones called eoliths have been considered the earliest tools, but it is impossible to distinguish man-made from naturally produced modifications in such stones. Lower Paleolithic stone industries of the early species of humans called Homo erectus include the Choukoutienian of China and the Clactonian, Chellean-Abbevillian, Acheulian and Levalloisian represented at various sites in Europe, Africa, and Asia, from 100,000 to 500,000 years ago. Stone tools of this period are of the core type, made by chipping the stone to form a cutting edge, or of the flake type, fashioned from fragments struck off a stone. Hand axes were the typical tool of these early hunters and food-gatherers. 2

The Middle Paleolithic Period
The Middle Paleolithic period includes the Mousterian culture, often associated with Neanderthal man, an early form of man, living between 40,000 and 100,000 years ago. Neanderthal remains are often found in caves with evidence of the use of fire. Neanderthals were hunters of prehistoric mammals, and their cultural remains, though unearthed chiefly in Europe, have been found also in N Africa, Palestine, and Siberia. Stone tools of this period are of the flake tradition, and bone implements, such as needles, indicate that crudely sewn furs and skins were used as body coverings. Since the dead were painted before burial, a kind of primitive religion may have been practiced. 3

The Upper Paleolithic Period
In the Upper Paleolithic period Neanderthal man disappears and is replaced by a variety of Homo sapiens such as Cro-Magnon man and Grimaldi man. This, the flowering of the Paleolithic period, saw an astonishing number of human cultures, such as the Aurignacian, Gravettian, Perigordian, Solutrean, and Magdalenian, rise and develop in the Old World. The beginnings of communal hunting and extensive fishing are found here, as is the first conclusive evidence of belief systems centering on magic and the supernatural. Pit houses, the first man-made shelters, were built, sewn clothing was worn, and sculpture and painting originated. Tools were of great variety, including flint and obsidian blades and projectile points. It is probable that the people of the Aurignacian culture migrated to Europe after developing their distinctive culture elsewhere, perhaps in Asia. Their stone tools are finely worked, and they made a typical figure eight–shaped blade. They also used bone, horn, and ivory and made necklaces and other personal ornaments. They carved the so-called Venus figures, ritual statuettes of bone, and made outline drawings on cave walls. 4
The hunters of the Solutrean phase of the Upper Paleolithic entered Europe from the east and ousted many of their Aurignacian predecessors. The Solutrean wrought extremely fine spearheads, shaped like a laurel leaf. The wild horse was their chief quarry. The Solutrean as well as remnants of the Aurignacian were replaced by the Magdalenian, the final, and perhaps most impressive, phase of the Paleolithic period. Here artifacts reflect a society made up of communities of fishermen and reindeer hunters. Surviving Magdalenian tools, which range from tiny microliths to implements of great length and fineness, indicate an advanced technique. Weapons were highly refined and varied, the atlatl first came into use, and along the southern edge of the ice sheet boats and harpoons were developed. However, the crowning achievement of the Magdalenian was its cave paintings, the culmination of Paleolithic art. 5

Middle Stone Age, period in human development between the end of the Paleolithic period and the beginning of the Neolithic period. It began with the end of the last glacial period over 10,000 years ago and evolved into the Neolithic period; this change involved the gradual domestication of plants and animals and the formation of settled communities at various times and places. While Mesolithic cultures lasted in Europe until almost 3000 B.C., Neolithic communities developed in the Middle East between 9000 and 6000 B.C. Mesolithic cultures represent a wide variety of hunting, fishing, and food gathering techniques. This variety may be the result of adaptations to changed ecological conditions associated with the retreat of glaciers, the growth of forests in Europe and deserts in N Africa, and the disappearance of the large game of the Ice Age. Characteristic of the period were hunting and fishing settlements along rivers and on lake shores, where fish and mollusks were abundant. Microliths, the typical stone implements of the Mesolithic period, are smaller and more delicate than those of the late Paleolithic period. Pottery and the use of the bow developed, although their presence in Mesolithic cultures may only indicate contact with early Neolithic peoples. The Azilian culture, which was centered in the Pyrenees region but spread to Switzerland, Belgium, and Scotland, was one of the earliest representatives of Mesolithic culture in Europe. The Azilian was followed by the Tardenoisian culture, which covered much of Europe; most of these settlements are found on dunes or sandy areas. The Maglemosian, named for a site in Denmark, is found in the Baltic region and N England. It occurs in the middle of the Mesolithic period. It is there that hafted axes, an improvement over the Paleolithic hand axe, and bone tools are found. The Ertebolle culture, also named for a site in Denmark, spans most of the late Mesolithic. It is also known as the kitchen-midden culture for the large deposits of mollusk shells found around the settlements. Other late Mesolithic cultures are the Campignian and Asturian, both of which may have had Neolithic contacts. The Mesolithic period in other areas is represented by the Natufian in the Middle East, the Badarian and Gerzean in Egypt, and the Capsian in N Africa. The Natufian culture provides the earliest evidence of an evolution from a Mesolithic to a Neolithic way of life.

New Stone Age. The term neolithic is used, especially in archaeology and anthropology, to designate a stage of cultural evolution or technological development characterized by the use of stone tools, the existence of settled villages largely dependent on domesticated plants and animals, and the presence of such crafts as pottery and weaving. The time period and cultural content indicated by the term varies with the geographic location of the culture considered and with the particular criteria used by the individual scientist. The domestication of plants and animals usually distinguishes Neolithic culture from earlier Paleolithic or Mesolithic hunting, fishing, and food-gathering cultures. The Mesolithic period in several areas shows a gradual transition from a food-collecting to a food-producing culture. The termination of the Neolithic period is marked by such innovations as the rise of urban civilization or the introduction of metal tools or writing. Again, the criteria vary with each case. The earliest known development of Neolithic culture was in SW Asia between 8000 B.C. and 6000 B.C. There the domestication of plants and animals was probably begun by the Mesolithic Natufian peoples, leading to the establishment of settled villages based on the cultivation of cereals, including wheat, barley, and millet, and the raising of cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. In the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys, the Neolithic culture of the Middle East developed into the urban civilizations of the Bronze Age by 3500 B.C. Between 6000 B.C. and 2000 B.C. Neolithic culture spread through Europe, the Nile valley (Egypt), the Indus valley (India), and the Huang He valley (N China). The formation of Neolithic cultures throughout the Old World resulted from a combination of local cultural developments with innovations diffused from the Middle East. In SE Asia, a distinct type of Neolithic culture involving rice cultivation developed, perhaps independently, before 2000 B.C. In the New World, the domestication of plants and animals occurred independently of Old World developments. By 1500 B.C., Neolithic cultures based on the cultivation of corn, beans, squash, and other plants were present in Mexico and South America, leading to the rise of the Inca and Aztec civilizations and spreading to other parts of the Americas by the time of European contact. The term Neolithic has also been used in anthropology to designate cultures of more contemporary primitive, independent farming communities.
Terjemahannya :
Zaman Batu
Prehistoric cultural stage, or level of human development, characterized by the creation and use of stone tools. Budaya prasejarah panggung, atau tingkat pembangunan manusia, ditandai dengan penciptaan dan penggunaan alat-alat batu.
Robert A. Guisepi Robert A. Guisepi
Date:2000 Tanggal: 2000
Archaeology is concerned with the origins and development of early human culture between the first appearance of man as a tool-using mammal, which is believed to have occurred about 600,000 or 700,000 years ago, and the beginning of the Recent geologic era, about 8000 BC. Arkeologi berkaitan dengan asal-usul dan pengembangan kebudayaan manusia awal antara penampilan pertama manusia sebagai alat-dengan mamalia, yang diyakini telah terjadi sekitar 600.000 atau 700.000 tahun yang lalu, dan awal era geologi baru-baru ini, sekitar 8000 SM .
The Stone Age is usually divided into three separate periods--Paleolithic Period, Mesolithic Period, and Neolithic Period--based on the degree of sophistication in the fashioning and use of tools. Zaman Batu biasanya dibagi menjadi tiga periode terpisah - Periode Paleolitik, Mesolithic Periode, dan Neolitik Periode - berdasarkan tingkat kecanggihan dalam fashioning dan penggunaan alat.
Paleolithic Paleolitik
Archaeology is concerned with the origins and development of early human culture between the first appearance of man as a tool-using mammal, which is believed to have occurred about 600,000 or 700,000 years ago, and the beginning of the Recent geologic era, about 8000 BC. Arkeologi berkaitan dengan asal-usul dan pengembangan kebudayaan manusia awal antara penampilan pertama manusia sebagai alat-dengan mamalia, yang diyakini telah terjadi sekitar 600.000 atau 700.000 tahun yang lalu, dan awal era geologi baru-baru ini, sekitar 8000 SM . It is included in the time span of the Pleistocene, or Glacial, Epoch--an interval of about 1,000,000 years. Hal ini termasuk dalam rentang waktu Pleistosen, atau Es, Epoch - selang dari sekitar 1.000.000 tahun. Although it cannot be proved, modern evidence suggests that the earliest protohuman forms had diverged from the ancestral primate stock by the beginning of the Pleistocene. Meskipun tidak dapat dibuktikan, bukti modern menunjukkan bahwa bentuk-bentuk awal protohuman telah menyimpang dari nenek moyang primata saham pada awal Pleistocene. In any case, the oldest recognizable tools are found in horizons of Lower Pleistocene Age. Dalam kasus apapun, alat dikenali tertua ditemukan di cakrawala Pleistosen Bawah Umur. During the Pleistocene a series of momentous climatic events occurred. Pada Pleistosen serangkaian kegiatan iklim penting terjadi. The northern latitudes and mountainous areas were subjected on four successive occasions to the advances and retreats of ice sheets (known as Günz, Mindel, Riss, and Würm in the Alps), river valleys and terraces were formed, the present coastlines were established, and great changes were induced in the fauna and flora of the globe. Lintang utara dan daerah pegunungan yang dikenakan pada empat kali berturut-turut untuk uang muka dan mundur dari lapisan es (dikenal sebagai Günz, Mindel, Riss, dan Wurm di Pegunungan Alpen), lembah-lembah sungai dan teras dibentuk, garis pantai ini didirikan, dan diinduksi perubahan besar dalam fauna dan flora di dunia. In large measure, the development of culture during Paleolithic times seems to have been profoundly influenced by the environmental factors that characterize the successive stages of the Pleistocene Epoch. Dalam skala besar, pengembangan budaya selama masa Paleolitik tampaknya telah sangat dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor lingkungan yang menjadi ciri tahap berturut-turut Epoch Pleistosen.
Throughout the Paleolithic, man was a food gatherer, depending for his subsistence on hunting wild animals and birds, fishing, and collecting wild fruits, nuts, and berries. Sepanjang Paleolitik, manusia adalah pengumpul makanan, tergantung untuk subsisten pada berburu binatang liar dan burung, memancing, dan mengumpulkan buah-buahan liar, kacang-kacangan, dan biji-bijian. The artifactual record of this exceedingly long interval is very incomplete; it can be studied from such imperishable objects of now-extinct cultures as were made of flint, stone, bone, and antler. Artifactual catatan panjang interval ini sangat sangat tidak lengkap, bisa dipelajari dari objek abadi semacam-punah budaya sekarang terbuat dari batu, batu, tulang, dan tanduk. These alone have withstood the ravages of time, and, together with the remains of contemporary animals hunted by our prehistoric forerunners, they are all that scholars have to guide them in attempting to reconstruct human activity throughout this vast interval--approximately 98 percent of the time span since the appearance of the first true hominid stock. Ini sendiri telah bertahan kerusakan waktu, dan, bersama dengan sisa-sisa hewan kontemporer diburu oleh pelopor prasejarah kita, mereka semua yang sarjana untuk membimbing mereka dalam usaha untuk merekonstruksi aktivitas manusia di seluruh selang besar - sekitar 98 persen dari waktu span sejak munculnya hominid saham pertama benar. In general, these materials develop gradually from single, all-purpose tools to an assemblage of varied and highly specialized types of artifacts, each designed to serve in connection with a specific function. Secara umum, bahan ini berkembang secara bertahap dari satu, alat-tujuan semua ke himpunan dari dan sangat khusus artefak yang bervariasi jenis, masing-masing dirancang untuk melayani dalam hubungannya dengan fungsi tertentu. Indeed, it is a process of increasingly more complex technologies, each founded on a specific tradition, which characterizes the cultural development of Paleolithic times. Memang, itu adalah proses yang lebih kompleks teknologi semakin, masing-masing didirikan pada tradisi tertentu, yang mencirikan perkembangan budaya kali Paleolitik. In other words, the trend was from simple to complex, from a stage of non-specialization to stages of relatively high degrees of specialization, just as has been the case during historic times. Dalam kata lain, tren itu dari yang sederhana sampai yang kompleks, dari tahap spesialisasi bukan untuk tahapan relatif tinggi spesialisasi derajat, seperti telah terjadi di saat-saat bersejarah.
In the manufacture of stone implements, four fundamental traditions were developed by the Paleolithic ancestors: (1) pebble-tool traditions; (2) bifacial-tool, or hand-ax, traditions; (3) flake-tool traditions; and (4) blade-tool traditions. Dalam pembuatan batu mengimplementasikan, empat tradisi fundamental tersebut dikembangkan oleh nenek moyang Paleolitik: (1)-alat tradisi kerikil; (2) bifacial-alat, atau tangan-kapak, tradisi, (3) serpihan-alat tradisi, dan (4 ) pisau-alat tradisi. Only rarely are any of these found in "pure" form, and this fact has led to mistaken notions in many instances concerning the significance of various assemblages. Hanya jarang adalah salah satu yang ditemukan dalam "" bentuk murni, dan fakta ini telah menyebabkan gagasan keliru dalam banyak contoh tentang pentingnya berbagai kumpulan. Indeed, though a certain tradition might be superseded in a given region by a more advanced method of producing tools, the older technique persisted as long as it was needed for a given purpose. Memang, meskipun tradisi tertentu mungkin digantikan di suatu wilayah dengan metode yang lebih maju memproduksi alat-alat, teknik bertahan lebih tua selama itu diperlukan untuk tujuan tertentu. In general, however, there is an overall trend in the order as given above, starting with simple pebble tools that have a single edge sharpened for cutting or chopping. But no true pebble-tool horizons had yet, by the late 20th century, been recognized in Europe. Secara umum, bagaimanapun, ada kecenderungan keseluruhan dalam urutan seperti tertera di atas, mulai dengan alat kerikil sederhana yang memiliki tepi tajam tunggal untuk memotong atau merajang. Tapi tidak benar kerikil-alat cakrawala belum, pada abad ke-20, telah diakui di Eropa. In southern and eastern Asia, on the other hand, pebble tools of primitive type continued in use throughout Paleolithic times. Di Asia selatan dan timur, pada sisi lain, alat kerikil tipe primitif terus digunakan di seluruh kali Paleolitik.
French place-names have long been used to designate the various Paleolithic subdivisions, since many of the earliest discoveries were made in France. Perancis nama-nama tempat telah lama digunakan untuk mendesain berbagai subdivisi Paleolitik, karena banyak dari penemuan paling awal dibuat di Perancis. This terminology has been widely applied in other countries, notwithstanding the very great regional differences that do in fact exist. Istilah ini telah banyak diterapkan di negara-negara lain, walaupun perbedaan regional yang sangat besar yang sebenarnya ada. But the French sequence still serves as the foundation of Paleolithic studies in other parts of the Old World. Tapi urutan Prancis masih menjabat sebagai dasar studi Paleolitik di bagian lain Dunia Lama. (HLMs./Ed.) There is reasonable agreement that the Paleolithic ended with the beginning of the recent (Holocene) geologic and climatic era about 8000 BC. (HLMs. / Ed.) Ada kesepakatan yang masuk akal bahwa Paleolitik berakhir dengan awal baru-baru ini (Holosen) geologi dan era iklim sekitar 8000 SM. It is also increasingly clear that a developmental bifurcation in man's culture history took place at about this time. Hal ini juga semakin jelas bahwa bifurkasi perkembangan dalam sejarah budaya manusia terjadi sekitar saat ini. In most of the world, especially in the temperate and tropical woodland environments or along the southern fringes of Arctic tundra, the older Upper Paleolithic traditions of life were simply readapted toward more or less increasingly intensified levels of food collection. Di sebagian besar dunia, terutama di lingkungan hutan tropis dan subtropis atau di sepanjang pinggiran selatan tundra Arktik, tua Paleolitik Atas tradisi kehidupan hanyalah readapted ke kurang lebih semakin intensif tingkat pengumpulan makanan. These cultural re-adaptations of older food procedures to the variety and succession of post-Pleistocene environments are generally referred to as occurring in the Mesolithic Period. Ini kembali budaya-adaptasi dari prosedur makanan yang lebih tua dengan variasi dan suksesi-Pleistosen lingkungan pasca umumnya disebut sebagai terjadi pada Masa Mesolithic. But also by 8000 BC (if not even somewhat earlier) in certain semi-arid environments of the world's middle latitudes, traces of a quite different course of development began to appear. Tapi juga oleh SM 8000 (jika tidak bahkan agak lebih dini) di lingkungan semi-kering tertentu yang tengah lintang dunia, jejak tentu sangat berbeda perkembangan mulai muncul. These traces indicate a movement toward incipient agriculture and (in one or two instances) animal domestication. Jejak ini menunjukkan gerakan ke arah pertanian baru jadi dan (dalam satu atau dua contoh) domestikasi hewan. In the case of southwestern Asia, this movement had already culminated in a level of effective village-farming communities by 7000 BC. Dalam kasus Asia barat daya, gerakan ini telah mencapai puncaknya pada tingkat masyarakat desa-pertanian yang efektif oleh 7000 SM. In Meso-America, a comparable development--somewhat different in its details and without animal domestication--was taking place almost as early. Dalam Meso-Amerika, sebuah perkembangan yang sebanding - agak berbeda dalam detail dan tanpa domestikasi hewan - berlangsung hampir sama awal. It may thus be maintained that in the environmentally favorable portions of southwestern Asia, Meso-America, the coastal slopes below the Andes, and perhaps in southeastern Asia (for which little evidence is available), little if any trace of the Mesolithic stage need be anticipated. Dengan demikian dapat dipertahankan bahwa dalam bagian yang menguntungkan lingkungan Asia barat daya, Meso-Amerika, lereng pesisir di bawah Andes, dan mungkin di Asia tenggara (yang hanya sedikit bukti yang tersedia), jika ada sedikit jejak tahap Mesolithic perlu diantisipasi. The general level of culture probably shifted directly from that of the Upper Paleolithic to that of incipient cultivation and domestication. Tingkat umum budaya mungkin bergeser secara langsung dari bahwa dari Paleolitik Atas ke budidaya baru jadi dan domestikasi.
The picture presented by the culture history of the earlier portion of the Recent period is thus one of two generalized developmental patterns: (1) the cultural re-adaptations to post-Pleistocene environments on a more or less intensified level of food collection; and (2) the appearance and development of an effective level of food production. Gambar yang disajikan oleh sejarah budaya bagian awal periode baru-baru ini sehingga satu dari dua pola perkembangan umum: (1) kembali budaya-adaptasi ke-Pleistosen lingkungan posting pada kurang lebih diintensifkan tingkat koleksi makanan, dan ( 2) tampilan dan pengembangan tingkat efektif produksi pangan. It is generally agreed that this latter appearance and development was achieved quite independently in various localities in both the Old and New Worlds. Hal ini umumnya setuju bahwa ini penampilan terakhir dan pembangunan dicapai cukup mandiri di berbagai daerah baik di Lama dan Dunia Baru. As the procedures and the plant or animal domesticates of this new food-producing level gained effectiveness and flexibility to adapt to new environments, the new level expanded at the expense of the older, more conservative one. Sebagai prosedur dan tanaman atau hewan domesticates tingkat ini memproduksi makanan baru memperoleh efektivitas dan fleksibilitas untuk beradaptasi dengan lingkungan baru, tingkat baru diperluas dengan mengorbankan yang lebih tua, yang lebih konservatif. Finally, it is only within the matrix of a level of food production that any of the world's civilizations have been achieved. Akhirnya, hanya dalam matriks tingkat produksi pangan yang salah satu peradaban dunia telah dicapai.

Old Stone Age, the earliest period of human development and the longest phase of mankind's history. Old Stone Age, awal periode pembangunan manusia dan fase terpanjang dari sejarah umat manusia. It is approximately coextensive with the Pleistocene geologic epoch, beginning about 2 million years ago and ending in various places between 40,000 and 10,000 years ago, when it was succeeded by the Mesolithic period. Ini adalah sekitar coextensive dengan zaman geologi Pleistosen, mulai sekitar 2 juta tahun yang lalu dan berakhir di berbagai tempat antara 40.000 dan 10.000 tahun yang lalu, ketika digantikan oleh periode Mesolithic. By far the most outstanding feature of the Paleolithic period was the evolution of the human species from an apelike creature, or near human, to true Homo sapiens . Sejauh ini fitur yang paling menonjol dari periode Paleolitik adalah evolusi dari spesies manusia dari makhluk apelike, atau dekat manusia, Homo sapiens benar. This development was exceedingly slow and continued through the three successive divisions of the period, the Lower, Middle, and Upper Paleolithic. Perkembangan ini sangat lambat dan terus melalui tiga divisi periode berturut-turut, Bawah, Tengah, dan Paleolitik Atas. The most abundant remains of Paleolithic cultures are a variety of stone tools whose distinct characteristics provide the basis for a system of classification containing several tool making traditions or industries. Yang paling banyak sisa-sisa kebudayaan Paleolitik adalah berbagai alat-alat batu yang berbeda karakteristik memberikan dasar bagi sebuah sistem klasifikasi yang mengandung beberapa alat bantu pengambilan tradisi atau industri. 1 1

The Lower Paleolithic Period Periode Paleolitik Bawah
The oldest recognizable tools made by members of the family of man are simple stone choppers, such as those discovered at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania. Alat dikenali tertua yang dibuat oleh anggota keluarga manusia adalah helikopter batu sederhana, seperti yang ditemukan di Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. These tools may have been made over 1 million years ago by Australopithecus, ancestor of modern man. Peralatan ini mungkin telah dibuat lebih dari 1 juta tahun yang lalu oleh Australopithecus, nenek moyang manusia modern. Fractured stones called eoliths have been considered the earliest tools, but it is impossible to distinguish man-made from naturally produced modifications in such stones. Retak batu disebut eoliths telah dianggap sebagai alat paling awal, tetapi tidak mungkin untuk membedakan buatan manusia dari modifikasi yang diproduksi secara alami dalam batu tersebut. Lower Paleolithic stone industries of the early species of humans called Homo erectus include the Choukoutienian of China and the Clactonian, Chellean-Abbevillian, Acheulian and Levalloisian represented at various sites in Europe, Africa, and Asia, from 100,000 to 500,000 years ago. Lower industri batu Paleolitik dari spesies awal manusia yang disebut Homo erectus termasuk Choukoutienian Cina dan Clactonian, Chellean-Abbevillian, Acheulian dan Levalloisian diwakili di berbagai tempat di Eropa, Afrika, dan Asia, dari Rp 100.000 sampai 500.000 tahun yang lalu. Stone tools of this period are of the core type, made by chipping the stone to form a cutting edge, or of the flake type, fashioned from fragments struck off a stone. Hand axes were the typical tool of these early hunters and food-gatherers. Alat batu periode ini adalah tipe inti, yang dibuat oleh chipping batu membentuk tepi pemotongan, atau jenis serpihan, dibuat dari fragmen melanda dari batu. Kapak Tangan adalah alat khas para pemburu awal dan pengumpul makanan . 2 2

The Middle Paleolithic Period Periode Paleolitik Tengah
The Middle Paleolithic period includes the Mousterian culture, often associated with Neanderthal man, an early form of man, living between 40,000 and 100,000 years ago. The periode Paleolitik Tengah termasuk budaya Mousterian, sering dikaitkan dengan manusia Neanderthal, bentuk awal manusia, yang hidup antara 40.000 sampai 100.000 tahun yang lalu. Neanderthal remains are often found in caves with evidence of the use of fire. Neanderthals were hunters of prehistoric mammals, and their cultural remains, though unearthed chiefly in Europe, have been found also in N Africa, Palestine, and Siberia. Neanderthal masih sering ditemukan di gua-gua dengan bukti penggunaan api,. Neanderthal adalah pemburu mamalia prasejarah dan tetap budaya mereka, meskipun digali terutama di Eropa, telah ditemukan juga di N Afrika, Palestina, dan Siberia. Stone tools of this period are of the flake tradition, and bone implements, such as needles, indicate that crudely sewn furs and skins were used as body coverings. alat Batu periode ini adalah tradisi serpihan, dan tulang menerapkan, seperti jarum, menunjukkan bahwa dijahit bulu kasar dan kulit digunakan sebagai penutup tubuh. Since the dead were painted before burial, a kind of primitive religion may have been practiced. Karena mati dicat sebelum pemakaman, semacam agama primitif mungkin telah dipraktekkan. 3 3

The Upper Paleolithic Period Periode Paleolitik Atas
In the Upper Paleolithic period Neanderthal man disappears and is replaced by a variety of Homo sapiens such as Cro-Magnon man and Grimaldi man. Pada periode Paleolitik Atas manusia Neanderthal menghilang dan digantikan oleh berbagai Homo sapiens seperti manusia Cro-Magnon dan manusia Grimaldi. This, the flowering of the Paleolithic period, saw an astonishing number of human cultures, such as the Aurignacian, Gravettian, Perigordian, Solutrean, and Magdalenian, rise and develop in the Old World. Ini, berbunga periode Paleolitik, melihat jumlah mengagumkan budaya manusia, seperti Aurignacian, Gravettian, Perigordian, Solutrean, dan Magdalenian, bangkit dan mengembangkan di Dunia Lama. The beginnings of communal hunting and extensive fishing are found here, as is the first conclusive evidence of belief systems centering on magic and the supernatural. Awal dari berburu dan memancing komunal yang ekstensif ditemukan di sini, seperti bukti konklusif pertama sistem kepercayaan yang berpusat pada sihir dan supranatural. Pit houses, the first man-made shelters, were built, sewn clothing was worn, and sculpture and painting originated. Pit rumah, tempat penampungan buatan manusia pertama, dibangun, pakaian dijahit dipakai, dan patung dan lukisan berasal. Tools were of great variety, including flint and obsidian blades and projectile points. Tools adalah varietas besar, termasuk batu api dan pisau obsidian dan poin proyektil. It is probable that the people of the Aurignacian culture migrated to Europe after developing their distinctive culture elsewhere, perhaps in Asia. Their stone tools are finely worked, and they made a typical figure eight–shaped blade. Ini adalah kemungkinan bahwa orang-orang dari budaya Aurignacian bermigrasi ke Eropa setelah mengembangkan budaya khas mereka di tempat lain, mungkin di Asia. Alat-alat batu mereka halus bekerja, dan mereka membuat gambar berbentuk pisau khas delapan. They also used bone, horn, and ivory and made necklaces and other personal ornaments. Mereka juga menggunakan tulang, tanduk, dan gading dan kalung dibuat dan ornamen pribadi lainnya. They carved the so-called Venus figures, ritual statuettes of bone, and made outline drawings on cave walls. Mereka mengukir Venus disebut begitu angka, patung ritual tulang, dan membuat gambar garis pada dinding gua. 4 4
The hunters of the Solutrean phase of the Upper Paleolithic entered Europe from the east and ousted many of their Aurignacian predecessors. The Solutrean wrought extremely fine spearheads, shaped like a laurel leaf. Para pemburu dari fase Solutrean dari Paleolitik Atas masuk ke Eropa dari timur dan banyak digulingkan Aurignacian pendahulu mereka. Para Solutrean tempa sangat halus ujung tombak, berbentuk seperti daun laurel. The wild horse was their chief quarry. Kuda liar buruan mereka adalah kepala. The Solutrean as well as remnants of the Aurignacian were replaced by the Magdalenian, the final, and perhaps most impressive, phase of the Paleolithic period. The Solutrean serta sisa-sisa Aurignacian telah diganti dengan Magdalenian, final, dan mungkin yang paling mengesankan, fase masa Paleolitik. Here artifacts reflect a society made up of communities of fishermen and reindeer hunters. Berikut artefak mencerminkan masyarakat terdiri dari masyarakat nelayan dan pemburu rusa. Surviving Magdalenian tools, which range from tiny microliths to implements of great length and fineness, indicate an advanced technique. Penggabungan alat Magdalenian, yang berkisar dari microliths kecil untuk melaksanakan panjang besar dan kehalusan, menunjukkan teknik canggih. Weapons were highly refined and varied, the atlatl first came into use, and along the southern edge of the ice sheet boats and harpoons were developed. Senjata yang sangat halus dan bervariasi, yang pertama atlatl mulai digunakan, dan sepanjang tepi selatan lembar perahu dan tombak es dikembangkan. However, the crowning achievement of the Magdalenian was its cave paintings, the culmination of Paleolithic art. Namun, pencapaian mahkota dari Magdalenian adalah lukisan gua, puncak dari seni Paleolitik. 5 5

Middle Stone Age, period in human development between the end of the Paleolithic period and the beginning of the Neolithic period. Zaman Batu Tengah, periode pembangunan manusia antara akhir periode Paleolitik dan awal periode Neolitik. It began with the end of the last glacial period over 10,000 years ago and evolved into the Neolithic period; this change involved the gradual domestication of plants and animals and the formation of settled communities at various times and places. Hal ini dimulai dengan akhir periode glasial terakhir lebih dari 10.000 tahun yang lalu dan berevolusi menjadi periode Neolitik; perubahan ini melibatkan bertahap domestikasi tanaman dan hewan dan pembentukan komunitas diselesaikan berbagai waktu dan tempat. While Mesolithic cultures lasted in Europe until almost 3000 BC, Neolithic communities developed in the Middle East between 9000 and 6000 BC Mesolithic cultures represent a wide variety of hunting, fishing, and food gathering techniques. Sementara Mesolithic budaya berlangsung di Eropa sampai hampir 3000 SM, Neolitik masyarakat dikembangkan di Timur Tengah antara 9000 dan 6000 SM budaya Mesolithic mewakili berbagai berburu, memancing, dan teknik pengumpulan makanan. This variety may be the result of adaptations to changed ecological conditions associated with the retreat of glaciers, the growth of forests in Europe and deserts in N Africa, and the disappearance of the large game of the Ice Age. Varietas ini mungkin akibat dari penyesuaian dengan kondisi ekologi berubah terkait dengan mundurnya gletser, pertumbuhan hutan di Eropa dan gurun di Afrika N, dan penghilangan dari permainan besar zaman es. Characteristic of the period were hunting and fishing settlements along rivers and on lake shores, where fish and mollusks were abundant. Karakteristik periode berburu dan permukiman nelayan di sepanjang sungai dan di tepi danau, di mana ikan dan moluska yang melimpah. Microliths, the typical stone implements of the Mesolithic period, are smaller and more delicate than those of the late Paleolithic period. Microliths, batu khas menerapkan periode Mesolithic, lebih kecil dan lebih halus dibandingkan dengan periode Paleolitik akhir. Pottery and the use of the bow developed, although their presence in Mesolithic cultures may only indicate contact with early Neolithic peoples. Tembikar dan penggunaan busur dikembangkan, meskipun kehadiran mereka dalam budaya Mesolithic hanya dapat menunjukkan kontak dengan masyarakat awal Neolitik. The Azilian culture, which was centered in the Pyrenees region but spread to Switzerland, Belgium, and Scotland, was one of the earliest representatives of Mesolithic culture in Europe. Budaya Azilian, yang dipusatkan di kawasan Pyrenees tetapi menyebar ke Swiss, Belgia, dan Skotlandia, adalah salah satu wakil budaya Mesolithic awal di Eropa. The Azilian was followed by the Tardenoisian culture, which covered much of Europe; most of these settlements are found on dunes or sandy areas. The Azilian diikuti oleh budaya Tardenoisian, yang menutupi sebagian besar Eropa, sebagian besar pemukiman yang ditemukan di bukit atau daerah berpasir. The Maglemosian, named for a site in Denmark, is found in the Baltic region and N England. The Maglemosian, nama untuk sebuah situs di Denmark, ditemukan di wilayah Baltik dan N Inggris. It occurs in the middle of the Mesolithic period. Hal ini terjadi di tengah-tengah periode Mesolithic. It is there that hafted axes, an improvement over the Paleolithic hand axe, and bone tools are found. Di situlah sumbu hafted, perbaikan atas kapak tangan Paleolitik, dan alat-alat tulang ditemukan. The Ertebolle culture, also named for a site in Denmark, spans most of the late Mesolithic. Budaya Ertebolle, juga nama untuk sebuah situs di Denmark, bentang sebagian besar Mesolithic terlambat. It is also known as the kitchen-midden culture for the large deposits of mollusk shells found around the settlements. Ia juga dikenal sebagai budaya-timbunan sampah dapur untuk deposito besar cangkang moluska yang ditemukan di sekitar pemukiman. Other late Mesolithic cultures are the Campignian and Asturian, both of which may have had Neolithic contacts. Lain terlambat Mesolithic budaya adalah Campignian dan Asturian, yang keduanya mungkin memiliki kontak Neolitik. The Mesolithic period in other areas is represented by the Natufian in the Middle East, the Badarian and Gerzean in Egypt, and the Capsian in N Africa. Periode Mesolithic di daerah lain diwakili oleh Natufian di Timur Tengah, Badarian dan Gerzean di Mesir, dan di N Capsian Afrika. The Natufian culture provides the earliest evidence of an evolution from a Mesolithic to a Neolithic way of life. Budaya Natufian memberikan bukti paling awal dari suatu evolusi dari Mesolithic ke cara hidup Neolitik.

New Stone Age. Zaman Batu Baru. The term neolithic is used, especially in archaeology and anthropology, to designate a stage of cultural evolution or technological development characterized by the use of stone tools, the existence of settled villages largely dependent on domesticated plants and animals, and the presence of such crafts as pottery and weaving. Istilah ini digunakan neolitik, terutama dalam arkeologi dan antropologi, untuk menentukan tahap evolusi budaya atau pengembangan teknologi yang ditandai oleh penggunaan alat-alat batu, keberadaan desa diselesaikan sebagian besar tergantung pada tanaman dan hewan piaraan, dan kehadiran kerajinan seperti tembikar dan menenun. The time period and cultural content indicated by the term varies with the geographic location of the culture considered and with the particular criteria used by the individual scientist. Jangka waktu dan konten budaya ditunjukkan oleh istilah itu bervariasi dengan lokasi geografis dari budaya dipertimbangkan dan dengan kriteria khusus yang digunakan oleh ilmuwan individu. The domestication of plants and animals usually distinguishes Neolithic culture from earlier Paleolithic or Mesolithic hunting, fishing, and food-gathering cultures. The Mesolithic period in several areas shows a gradual transition from a food-collecting to a food-producing culture. The domestikasi tumbuhan dan hewan biasanya membedakan budaya Neolitik dari Paleolitik Mesolithic sebelumnya atau berburu, memancing, dan mengumpulkan budaya makanan. Masa Mesolithic di beberapa daerah menunjukkan peralihan bertahap dari makanan-mengumpulkan ke-memproduksi budaya makanan. The termination of the Neolithic period is marked by such innovations as the rise of urban civilization or the introduction of metal tools or writing. Berakhirnya periode Neolitik ditandai oleh inovasi seperti munculnya peradaban kota atau pengenalan alat logam atau menulis. Again, the criteria vary with each case. Sekali lagi, berbeda dengan kriteria masing-masing kasus. The earliest known development of Neolithic culture was in SW Asia between 8000 BC and 6000 BC There the domestication of plants and animals was probably begun by the Mesolithic Natufian peoples, leading to the establishment of settled villages based on the cultivation of cereals, including wheat, barley, and millet, and the raising of cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. Perkembangan dikenal budaya neolitik awal di Asia SW antara 8000 SM dan 6000 SM Ada yang domestikasi tanaman dan hewan mungkin dimulai oleh orang-orang Natufian Mesolithic, mengarah pada pembentukan desa diselesaikan berdasarkan budidaya serealia, termasuk gandum, barley, dan millet, dan memelihara ternak, domba, kambing, dan babi. In the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys, the Neolithic culture of the Middle East developed into the urban civilizations of the Bronze Age by 3500 BC Between 6000 BC and 2000 BC Neolithic culture spread through Europe, the Nile valley (Egypt), the Indus valley (India), and the Huang He valley (N China). Dalam lembah sungai Tigris dan Efrat, budaya Neolitik di Timur Tengah berkembang menjadi peradaban kota Zaman Perunggu oleh SM Antara 3500 dan 2000 SM 6000 SM budaya Neolitik menyebar melalui Eropa, lembah Sungai Nil (Mesir), lembah Indus ( India), dan Huang Dia lembah (N Cina). The formation of Neolithic cultures throughout the Old World resulted from a combination of local cultural developments with innovations diffused from the Middle East. Pembentukan budaya neolitik di seluruh Dunia Lama yang dihasilkan dari kombinasi dari perkembangan budaya lokal dengan inovasi disebarkan dari Timur Tengah. In SE Asia, a distinct type of Neolithic culture involving rice cultivation developed, perhaps independently, before 2000 BC In the New World, the domestication of plants and animals occurred independently of Old World developments. Di Asia Tenggara, jenis yang berbeda dari budaya Neolitikum melibatkan budidaya padi dikembangkan, mungkin independen, sebelum tahun 2000 SM Di Dunia Baru, domestikasi tumbuhan dan hewan terjadi secara independen dari perkembangan Dunia Lama. By 1500 BC, Neolithic cultures based on the cultivation of corn, beans, squash, and other plants were present in Mexico and South America, leading to the rise of the Inca and Aztec civilizations and spreading to other parts of the Americas by the time of European contact. Pada 1500 SM, budaya Neolitik berdasarkan budidaya jagung, kacang, labu, dan tanaman lainnya hadir di Meksiko dan Amerika Selatan, yang menyebabkan munculnya peradaban Inca dan Aztec dan menyebar ke bagian lain di Amerika pada saat Eropa kontak. The term Neolithic has also been used in anthropology to designate cultures of more contemporary primitive, independent farming communities. Istilah ini Neolitik juga telah digunakan dalam antropologi untuk menunjuk budaya kontemporer lebih primitif, masyarakat petani independen.

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